درآمدی بر تصمیم‌گیری با رویکرد شناختی ـ عصبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه علوم و فنون هوایی شهید ستاری، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تصمیم‌گیری فرایندی بسیار پیچیده و چندوجهی است. هدف از این مقاله درک بهتر ماهیت فرایندهای تصمیم‌گیری از منظر عصبی ـ شناختی است. بدین منظور به تشریح مباحث چرایی زمان‌بر بودن تصمیم‌گیری، نقش هیجانات در تصمیم‌گیری، گذرگاه‌های عصبی تصمیم‌گیری، نقش تفکرهای خودانگیخته، هدف‌گرا و خلاق در تصمیم‌گیری، چگونگی انجام تصمیم‌گیری‌های پاداش و تنبیه در مغز پرداخته می‌شود. مرور مطالعات انجام شده در خصوص این مباحث نشان می‌دهد تصمیم‌گیری فرایندی زمان‌بر است و انسان در آن واحد بیش از یک تصمیم نمی‌تواند اخذ کند. هیجانات مؤلفه‌ای اساسی در تنظیم فعل و انفعالات بین شرایط محیطی و فرآیند تصمیم‌گیری انسان هستند و از طریق سیستم‌های عاطفی، دانش ضمنی و صریح ارزشمندی برای تصمیم‌گیری‌های سریع و عقلائی فراهم می‌شود. سیستم‌های عصبی دوگانه که در گذشته در حوزه تفکر و استدلال شناخته شده بودند، در تصمیم‌گیری نیز نقش دارند. فعالیت ذهنی خودانگیخته می‌تواند در سطح گسترده در تصمیم‌گیری و خلاقیت مفید باشد. در نهایت اینکه تصمیمات ماهیت شناختی ـ عصبی دارند از این رو یافته‌های علوم شناختی می‌تواند به تقویت نظریه‌های تصمیم‌گیری برای درک کامل‌تر فرایند انتخاب افراد کمک کند و دیدگاه‌های کامل‌تر و واقع‌گرایانه‌تری از رفتارهای تصمیم سازی و تصمیم‌گیری ارائه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Neuropsychology of Decision Making

نویسنده [English]

  • Hassan Mahjoub Eshratabadi
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management, Shahid Sattari University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the nature of decision-making processes from a neuro-cognitive perspective. Therefore, a qualitative meta-analysis of the literature on decision shows that the decision-making process is time-consuming, and at the same time, human beings cannot get more than one decision. Emotion is an essential component in regulating interactions between environmental conditions and the process of human decision making, and through emotional systems, explicit and implicit knowledge is provided for quick and rational decision-making. Dual neural systems, previously known in the field of thinking and reasoning, also play a role in decision making. The increasing volume of research shows that spontaneous mental activity can be useful at a broader level in decision making and creativity. Ultimately, decision making is a   cognitive-neural process. Therefore, cognitive science findings can strengthen decision-making theories for a more complete understanding of the process and provide better and realistic views of decision-making behaviors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Decision Making
  • Spontaneous Thinking
  • emotion
  • Decision Neurology
  • cognition
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