تجربه زیسته استادان دانشگاه شهرکرد از تعارض کار و خانواده: مطالعه پدیدارشناسی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری، مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، واحد تهران جنوب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت رسانه، دانشکده مدیریت، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اصفهان، ایران.

10.22034/jhrs.2021.130505

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: ایفای هم‌زمان نقش‌های کاری و خانوادگی، افراد را با فشارهای سنگینی مواجه می‌کند که هم بر سلامت جسم و روان و هم بر عملکرد آنان در سازمان تأثیر منفی می‌گذارد. این پژوهش، به مطالعه تجربه زیسته استادان یکی از دانشگاه‌های شهر کرد، در خصوص پیشایندها و پیامدهای تعارض کار و خانواده پرداخته است.
روش: این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از نظر نحوه گردآوری اطلاعات، کیفی است و با رویکرد استقرایی و تفسیری اجرا شده است. مشارکت‌کنندگان در پژوهش، استادان دانشگاه شهرکرد بودند که پس از انتخاب 20 نفر از آنها به‌روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، مصاحبه‌های عمیقی با آنها انجام شد. روش پژوهش، روش پدیدارشناسی بود. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل اطلاعات، از روش اصلاح‌شده استوتیک، کولایزی و ‎کن استفاد شد. شایان ذکر است که روایی نتایج، از جنبه‌های بیرونی، توصیفی و تفسیری، ارزیابی شد و به تأیید رسید.
یافته‌ها: تجربه زیسته مشارکت‌کنندگان، در خصوص پیشایندهای تعارض کار و خانواده، در سه مقوله اصلی پیشایندهای شخصی، خانوادگی و شغلی و همچنین، پیامدهای تعارض کار و خانواده در سه طبقه پیامدهای شخصی، خانوادگی و شغلی دسته‌بندی شدند.
نتیجه‌گیری: پیامدهای زیان‌بار نشئت‌گرفته از تعارض کار و خانواده میان استادان مشارکت‌کننده، ایجاب می‌کند که با ارتقای دانش و مهارت توازن‌سازی میان نقش‌های کاری و خانوادگی، موقعیتی ایجاد شود تا آنها بتوانند بهتر و بیشتر از عهده انجام هم‌زمان این وظیفه‌ها و انتظارهای دوگانه برآیند. بدین منظور، توجه به عوامل مؤثر بر تشدید تعارض کار و خانواده و ارائه راهکارهای مناسب برای کاهش آنها ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Lived Experience of Instructors of Shahrekord University on Work-family Conflict: A Study of Phenomenology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Ebrahimzadeh Dastjerdi 1
  • Abbas Ghaedamini Harouni 2
  • Mehrdad Sadeghi dehcheshmeh 1
  • Seyed Rahim Morsvian 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
2 PhD Candidate of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD Candidate, Department of Media Management, Faculty of Management, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background & Purpose: : The need to play work and family roles at the same time puts pressure on the individual that can have a negative impact on physical and mental health and performance of individuals in the organization. This study examines the lived experience of university professors regarding the antecedents and consequences of work-family conflict.
Methodology: This research is applied in terms of purpose, in terms of how to collect qualitative information and has been done with inductive and interpretive approach.. The participants in the study were professors of Shahrekord University, 20 of whom were selected by purposive sampling method and in-depth interviews were conducted with them. The research method used in this research is phenomenology. For data analysis, the modified Colaizzi - Kan -Stevic method was used. The validity of the results has been evaluated and confirmed in terms of external validity, descriptive validity, interpretive validity.
Findings: Participants' lived experience of work-family conflict antecedents are categorized into three main categories: personal, family, and occupational antecedents. The identified consequences of work-family conflict are also classified into 3 categories: personal, family and occupational consequences.
Conclusion: Harmful Consequences of Work-Family Conflict Among the teachers under study, it is necessary to improve the knowledge and skills of balancing work and family plans so that they can better and more efficiently perform these tasks and double expectations at the same time. For this purpose, it is necessary to pay attention to the factors affecting the aggravation of work-family conflict and provide appropriate solutions to reduce them

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Work-family Conflict
  • antecedents work-family conflict
  • Consequences work-family conflict
  • Personal Factors
  • occupational factors
  • family factors
Annor, F. (2014). Managing Work and Family Demands: the Perspectives of Employed Parents
in Ghana. in: Z. Mokomane (Ed), Work- family Interface in Sub-Saharan Africa,
Cambridge: University of Cambridge, p.17- 36.
Arizi Samani, S.H., Dibaji, S.M., Sadeghi, M. (2011). Investigating the Relationship between
Work-Family Conflict and Perceived Organizational Support, Job Stress, and Self-
Domination in Satellite Employees. Clinical and Consultative Psychology Research, 1
(2), 151-170. (in Persian)
Arizi, S.H.R., Colony, S.D. (2017). Styles of coping with job stress and work-family conflict.
Quarterly Journal of Human Resource Management in the Oil Industry, 9 (33), 133-155.
(in Persian )
Baghban, I. (2010). Establishing a balance between family and work life (first edition), Tehran:
Kankash. (in Persian)
Bagheri, S., Hosseini, S.S. (2016). Study of the experience of women faculty members in
fulfilling family and professional responsibilities. Quarterly Journal of Women in Culture
and Arts, 3 (1), 134-117. (in Persian)
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2005).The crossover of burnout and work
engagement amongworking couples. Human Relations, 58: 661-89.
Balali, I., Mohebbi, S.F., Hosseini, Sh.S. (2017). Qualitative analysis of the challenges of
playing student and family roles at the same time. Quarterly Journal of Women and
Family Social Cultural Council, 19 (75), 31-62. (in Persian)
Barnett, R.C. & Hyde, J.S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family. American Psychologist,
56(10), 140-166.
Beutell, N.J. and Greenhaus, J.H. (1985). Some Sources and Consequences of Interrole Conflict
among Married Women. Proceeding of the Annuai Meeting of the Eastern Academy of
Management, 17, 2-6.
Carlson, D. S., Grzywacz, G. & Zivnuska, S. (2009). Is work–family balance more than conflict
and enrichment? Human Relations, 62(10), 1459-1486.
Carlson, D.S., Kacmar, K.M., & Williams, L.J. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a
multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
56(2), 249-276.
Cok, A.B & Deyaz, D.P (2011). Work-family conflict couples. Journal of Vocational Behavior,
80(2), 380–389.
Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods
Approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the
relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review,
25(1), 178–199.
Gearing, R.E. (2004). Bracketing in research: A typology. Qualitative Health Research, 14(10),
1429-1452.
Gözükara, I. & Çolakoğlu, N. (2016). The Mediating Effect of Work Family Conflict on the
Relationship between Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Procedia - Social
and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 253 – 266.
Greenhaus, J. H. & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: a theory of workfamily
enrichement. Academy of Management Review, 31(1),72-92.
Grossi, S., Adinehzadeh, R. (2010). The study of the relationship between social factors and the
conflict of job and family roles among women working in Kerman. Journal of Social
Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, 7 (1), 121-139. (in Persian)
Hammer, L., & Thompson, C. (2004). Work-family role conflict. Zicklin school of business.
Baruch college, CUNY.
Heidari, A. & Dehghani, H. (2016). A qualitative study of the phenomenon of family-work
conflict and how to manage it among married female teachers in Delvar. Journal of
Applied Sociology, 2 (63), 15-40. (in Persian)
Hesabi, M., Maghsoudi, Sh., Emami Sigaroudi, A., Kazemnejad Lily, E., Monfared Mozhdehi,
A. (2015). Work-family conflict in nurses working in medical centers in Rasht. Journal of
Women's Psychological Social Studies, 13( 4), 152-123. (in Persian)
Jianli Wang , Tracie O Afifi, Brian Cox, Jitender Sareen (2007). Work–Family Conflict and
Mental Disorders in the United States:Cross-Sectional Findings From the National
Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50(2), 143–149.
Karimi, L. (2006). A test model of the Work-family interface: a study of Iranian employees. Phd
Thesis, Curtin university of Technology.
Kirchmeyer, C. (2005). A Cross-Cultural Study Of The Work/Nonwork Interface Among Israeli
Nurses. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(4), 537-567.
Kirk, J. (2015). Impossible Fictions: The lived experience of women teachers in Karachi.
Comparative Education Review, 48(4), 374-395.
Koura, U., Sekine, M., Yamada, M. & Tatsuse, T. (2017). Work, family, and personal
characteristics explain occupational and gender differences in Work family conflict
among Japanese civil servants. Journal of public health, 153, 78-90.
Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (2007). The sage handbook of qualitative research. Thousands
Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mazerolle, S.M., Bruening, J.E. & Casa, D.J. (2008). Work-family conflict, Part II: Job and life
satisfaction in national collegiate athletic association division I-A certified athletic
trainers. Journal of Athletic Training, 43(5), 505-512.
Motesharei, M, H(2010). Theoretical model of work-family conflict test in nurses of public
hospitals in Shiraz. Master Thesis in Industrial Psychology. Shahid Chamran University
of Ahvaz. (in Persian )
Naimi, G., Nazari, A.M., & Sanaei Zaker, B. (2014). A study of the relationship between quality
of work life and work-family conflict with the job performance of married male
employees. Journal of Job and Organizational Counseling, 4 (10), 57-72. (in Persian)
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., Kossek, E.E., & Sweet, S. (Eds.). (2006). The work and family
handbook:Multi-disciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches (1st ed.). Mahwah,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Qalavand, M. and Naeimi, E. (2019). Qualitative study of individual factors on the continuation
of work-family conflict in married nursing women. Fifth National Conference on Recent
Innovations in Psychology, Applications and Empowerment with a focus on
psychotherapy, Tehran, Shams Gonbad University with the support of associations and
Departments of the country's universities. (in Persian)
Rabbani, M., Mansouri, A., Jahani, Y., Shahdadi, H., Khomri, M. (2015). Relationship between
work-family conflict and marital satisfaction in nurses and midwives of Zabol University
of Medical Sciences hospitals. Scientific Journal of Qazvin University of Medical
Sciences, 20 (3), 49-56. (in Persian)
Rao, S. & Perry, C. (2003). Convergent interviewing to build a theory inunder-researched areas:
principles and anexample investigation of Internet usage ininter-firm relationships,
Qualitative Marke Research: An International Journal, 6(4), 236-247.
Rastegar Khaled, A. (2006). Work-Family-Gender (First Edition). Women's Socio-Cultural
Council. Tehran. (in Persian)
Salahian, A., Kajbaf, M.B., Nouri, A., Molavi, H., Hassanzadeh, M. (2010). Some
organizational factors affecting work-family conflict. Bi-monthly journal Daneshvar
Behavior / Clinical Psychology and Personality, (43), 21-30. (in Persian)
Salarzehi, H., Mir, H. (2013). Study and analysis of the factors and consequences of work-life
imbalance Case study (faculty members of Sistan and Baluchestan University). Second
National Conference on Modern Management Sciences, Gorgan, Hakim Jorjani Non-
Profit Higher Education Institute. (in Persian)
Seif, M.H., Sabet Maharloui, A., Rastegar, A., Talebi, S. (2014). Investigating organizational
and psychological factors affecting the work conflict of married female nurses' families)
Presenting a model of path analysis. Journal of Women and Society, 5 (2), 49-68.
(in Persian)
Selvarajan, T.T., Cloninger, P.A. & Singh, B. (2013). Social Support and Work- Family
Conflict: A Test of an Indirect Effects Model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 486-
499.
Shosha, G. A. (2012). Employment of Colaizzi's strategy in descriptive phenomenology a
reflection of a researcher. European Scientific Journal, 8(27), 31-43.
Spector, P.E., Allen, T.D., Poelmans, S., Lapierre, L.M., Cooper, C.L., O’Driscoll, M., Sanchez,
J.I., Abarca, N., Alexandrova, M., Beham, B., Brough, P., Ferreiro,P., Fraile, G., Lu, C.,
Lu, L., Moreno-Velázquez, I., Pagon, M., Pitariu, H.,Salamatov, V., Shima, S., Suarez
Simoni, A., Siu, O.L., & Widerszal-Bazyl, M.(2007). Cross-national differences in
relationships of work demands, job satisfaction and turnover intentions with work–family
conflict. Personnel Psychology, 60,805–835.
Tavangar, H., Alhani, F., & Vanki, Z. (2012) Coping methods of work / family conflict in
nurses: a qualitative study. Ibn Sina Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Care, 20 (1), 14-
24. (in Persian)
Tufford, L., & Newman, P. (2012). Bracketing in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Social
Work, 11(1), 80-86.
Tuttle, M. D. (2006). A closer look at the work hours and work/family relationship: The
Moderating and Enhancing Effects of Fit. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master of Arts.
Wang, I.A., Tsaib, H.Y., Leec, M.H., & Kod, R.C. (2019). The effect of work–family conflict
on emotional exhaustion and job performance among service workers: the cross-level
moderating effects of organizational reward and caring, The International Journal of
Human Resource Management, DOI: 10.1080/09585192.2019.1651373.
Wayne, H.J., Matthews, R., Crawford, W., Casper, W.J. (2019). Predictors and processes of
satisfaction with work–family balance: Examining the role of personal, work, and family
resources and conflict and enrichment. Human Resource Management, 59(1), 25-42.
Xinyuan, H. (2012). Employees' work–family conflict moderating life and job satisfaction.
Journal of Business Research, 65, 22–28.
Zare, R., Fathizadeh, A., Abdinia, H. (2015). The effect of interpersonal problems on workfamily
conflict: An analysis of the role of mediator of emotional burnout and moderator
of revenge. Journal of Human Resources Studies, (1), 134-109. (in Persian)