شناسایی و اولویت‌بندی چالش‌های عملکردی مدیران صف در جعبه سیاه مدیریت منابع انسانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/jhrs.2021.139107

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: نقش مدیران صف در تحقق ارتباط شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی با عملکرد، حیاتی و انکارناپذیر است. در پژوهش‌های پیشین، به خصوصیت‌های این نقش در کشور به اندازه کافی توجه نشده است. در این پژوهش برای نخستین بار تلاش شده است تا با استفاده از مدل نظری و روشی جدید در جامعه آماری شرکت ملی پخش فراورده‎های نفتی، به بررسی عمیق‌تر نقش مدیران صف در مدل جعبه سیاه منابع انسانی پرداخته شود و ضمن شناسایی چالش‌های آنان در مسیر تحقق انتظارات عملکردی، به اولویت‌بندی میزان اهمیت هر یک از چالش‌ها اقدام شود.
روش: پژوهش حاضر با دو روش و در دو مرحله مجزا اجرا شده است. نخست، به‌کمک روش فراترکیب با رویکرد «ترکیب تلفیقی تحقیقات» و با مطالعه و کُدگذاری علمی و روش‌مند 243 مقاله معتبر پیشین، به شناسایی و دسته‌بندی چالش‌های عملکردی مدیران صف در جعبه سیاه مدیریت منابع انسانی پرداخته شد. دوم، با استفاده از روش کمّی تحلیل سلسله‌مراتبی (AHP) و بر اساس نیاز شرکت ملی پخش فراورده‌های نفتی، به اولویت‌بندی چالش‌های شناسایی‌شده در گام نخست پژوهش اقدام شد.
یافته‌ها: مرحله شناسایی چالش‌های عملکردی مدیران صف، به توصیف و توضیح عوامل متعددی انجامید که در نهایت، همه عوامل در پنج گروه کلی دسته‌بندی‌ شدند. در مرحله اولویت‌بندی اهمیت چالش‌ها نیز «حمایت مدیران ارشد و مدیران منابع انسانی» مهم‌ترین چالش تشخیص داده شد و به‌ترتیب «توانایی، دانش و مهارت» و «تعهد به مدیریت افراد» در رتبه‌های دوم و سوم قرار گرفتند و «ابهام در نقش و اولویت‌های متعارض» و «حجم کار» به‌طور مشترک اهمیت کمتری داشتند.
نتیجه‌گیری: در صورت ناکامی مدیران صف در  ایفای نقش مؤثر بر ارتباط با وظایف محوله حوزه منابع انسانی، امکان شکست کلیه تلاش‌ها برای به‌کارگیری شیوه‌های مدیریت منابع انسانی و متعاقب آن، هدررفت منابع سازمانی بسیار زیاد خواهد بود. بنابراین، مدیران و تصمیم‌سازان سازمانی باید ضمن در نظر گرفتن چالش‌های عملکردی مدیران صف، به راه‌کارهای غلبه بر آنان به‌طور ویژه‌ای توجه کنند. در انتها نیز ضمن بحث و بررسی یافته‌ها، به توصیف مسیرهایی پرداخته شده است که بررسی آنها در پژوهش‌های بعدی لازم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification and Prioritization of Line Managers’ Practical Challenges in HRM Black Box

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habib Roodsaz 1
  • MirAli Seyed-naghavi 2
  • Davood HosseinPour 1
  • Ali Mahjoub 3
1 Associate Prof., Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Prof, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student in Public Administration, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background & Purpose: The role of line managers is vital and undeniable in realization of the linkage between HRM practices and performance. The specifications of that role have not received sufficient scrutinization in previous local studies. In this study, for the first time, by applying a new theoretical model and a new method, in National Oil and Natural Gas Company, we tried to deeply investigate the role of line managers in HRM black box, identify their challenges in fulfilling their practical roles, and prioritize the importance of each challenge
Methodology: Regarding the method, current study composed of two separated phases. First, by applying a meta-synthesis approach, known as ''mixed research synthesis'', and by methodological scrutinization of 243 credible articles, we came up with a thorough description of line managers’ status in HRM black box and investigated their functional/practical challenges. Second, by using AHP method, the identified challenges in the first step were prioritized.
Findings: The phase of identification line managers’ practical challenges, led to explanation of many factors which then were categorized into five general challenges. In the factor prioritization phase, "CEO & HR managers support" was determined as the most important challenges, followed by "Knowledge, skill & ability", "commitment to people management". Finally, both factors of "role ambiguity & inconsistent priorities" and "load of work" together were rated as the less important challenges.
Conclusion: When line managers fail in their effective roles in relation to HRM-related duties, the probability of failure in all HRP efforts and subsequently wasting organizational resources will be high. Accordingly, it is essential for CEOs and decision makers to consider line managers’ functional challenges and particularly focus on solutions to overcome them. At the end, in addition to discussion of the findings, future research directions are provided.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Analytical Hierarchy Process
  • black box
  • Human Resource Management
  • line managers
  • Meta-Synthesis
آبیار، محمدرضا؛ فقیهی، ابوالحسین؛ چناری، وحید (1399). شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر حکمرانی شرکت ملی نفت ایران با رویکرد پایداری شرکتی. فصلنامه مدیریت منابع انسانی در صنعت نفت، 12(46)، 3-18.
اکبری، محسن؛ اسماعیل‎پور، رضا؛ آل‎طه، سیدحسن؛ قویدل، آزاده (1399). ترویج رفتارهای فرانقش و همکاری کارکنان از راه ارتباطات درون‎سازمانی: مطالعه‎ی میانجی‎گری ابهام نقش و تعهد سازمانی. فصلنامه مطالعات منابع انسانی، 10(2)، 125- 150.
تقی‎زاده مطلق، سیدمحمد (1393). تأثیر روابط تعاملی فرد با سرپرست و همکاران و جایگاه فرد در سلسله‎مراتب بر ادراک فضای سیاسی در سازمان. فصلنامه پژوهشهای مدیریت منابع انسانی دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)، 6(1)، 157- 174.
شاه‎حسینی، محمدعلی؛ حقیقی، محمد؛ مؤذن، سارا (1398). ارائه مدل هم‎راستایی استراتژی‎های منابع انسانی با استراتژی‎های کلان سازمانی در شرکت ملی نفت ایران. فصلنامه مدیریت منابع انسانی در صنعت نفت، 11(42)، 93- 126.
قاسمی، شاهرخ؛ جزنی، نسرین؛ معمارزاده، غلامرضا؛ صیاد شیرکش، سعید؛ حسن‎زاده، علیرضا (1399). مدلی برای انتخاب مدیران شرکت‎های دولتی با تمرکز بر بُعد سیاسی. فصلنامه مدیریت منابع انسانی در صنعت نفت، 12(46)، 19- 36.
محجوب عشرت‎آبادی، حسن (1396). درآمدی بر تصمیم‎گیری با رویکرد شناختی ـ عصبی. فصلنامه مطالعات منابع انسانی، 6(26)، 143- 172.
محجوب، علی؛ رودساز، حبیب؛ سیدنقوی، میرعلی؛ حسین‎پور، داود (1400). مدل زنجیره علّی مدیریت منابع انسانی به‎عنوان ابزار مطالعه جعبۀ سیاه مدیریت منابع انسانی. دومین کنفرانس بینالمللی چالشها و راهکارهای نوین در مهندسی صنایع و مدیریت و حسابداری، دامغان: دانشگاه دامغان.
منوریان، عباس؛ اسکندری، هادی؛ عرفانی، نسرین (1396). رابطه سیستم مدیریت منابع انسانی و عملکرد سازمان: نقش میانجی جهت‎گیری استراتژیک. فصلنامه مطالعات منابع انسانی، 6(23)، 1-20.
Armstrong, M. (2006). Strategic human resource management: A guide to action. (3rd Edition). Kogan Page.
Baczyńska, A. (2015). Analytical, practical and emotional intelligence and line manager competencies. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 23(4), 34-54.
Becker, B., & Huselid, M. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Björkman, I., Ehrnrooth, M., Smale, A., & John, S. (2011). The determinants of line management internalization of HRM practices in MNC subsidiaries. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8), 1654-1671.
Blau, P., & Scott, W.R. (1963). Formal organizations: A comparative approach. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.
Boland, A., Cherry, G., & Dickson, R. (2013). Doing a systematic review: A student's guide. (1st Eds.), SAGE Publications.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. (2005). Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3), 67-94.
Bowen, D., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29, 203-221.
Brewster, C., & Larsen, H. H. (2000). Responsibility in human resource management: the role of the line. In: Human Resource Management in Northern Europe, ed. Chris Brewster and Henrik Holt Larsen, Oxford: Blackwells, 195-219.
Brewster, C., & Soderstrom, M. (1994). Human resources and line management. in: C. Brewster and A. Hegewish (eds) Policy and practice in European human resource management, London: Routledge.
Cadwell, R. (2003). The changing roles of personnel managers: old ambiguities, new uncertainties. Journal of Management Studies, 40(4), 983-1004.
Cafferkey, K., Harney, B., Dundon, T., & Edgar, F. (2017). Unravelling the foci of employee commitment. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 4(1), 2-17.
Chen, Z., & Farh, J. (2002). Loyalty to supervisor vs organizational commitment: Relationships to employee performance in China. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(2), 339-56.
Child, J., & Partridge, B. (1982). The lost managers: supervisors in industry and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
CIPD (2006). Reward Management survey. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
CIPD (2007). Latest trends in learning, training and development. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
CIPD (2019). Annual report and accounts. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Creswell, J. W., & Tashakkori, A. (2007). Differing perspectives on mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(4), 303-308.
Critical Appraisal Skills Programme, (2018). CASP (Systematic Review) Checklist. [online] Available at: https://casp-uk.net/casp-tools-checklists/. Accessed: 4/18/2020.
Cunningham, I., & Hyman, J. (1995). Transforming the HRM vision into reality: the role of line managers in implementing change. Employee Relations, 17(8), 5-20.
Cunningham, I., & Hyman, J. (1999). Devolving human resource responsibilities to the line: beginning of the end or a new beginning for personnel? Personnel Review, 28(1/2), 9-27.
Evans, S. (2015). Juggling on the line. Employee Relations, 37(4), 459-474.
Fenton O’Creevy, M. (2001). Employee involvement and the middle manager: saboteur or scapegoat? Human Resource Management Journal, 11(2), 24-40.
Gainey, T. W. (2000). Determinants of satisfaction with external training providers: An integration of transaction cost economics and social exchange theory. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, SC), Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, (UMI No. 3006030).
Gennard, J., & Kelly, J. (1997). The unimportance of labels: the diffusion of the personnel/HRM function. Industrial Relations Journal, 28(1), 27-42.
Gerhart, B. (2005). Human resources and business performance: findings, unanswered questions, and an alternative approach. Management Review, 16(2), 174-85.
Gibb, S. (2003). Line manager involvement in learning and development: small beer or big deal? Employee Relations, 25(3), 281-293.
Gough, D., Oliver, S., & Thomas, J. (2012). An introduction to systematic reviews. SAGE Publications Inc.
Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Stiles, P., & Truss, C. (1999). Strategic human resource management: Corporate rhetoric and human reality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guest, D. (1987). Human resource management and industrial relations. Journal of Management Studies, 24(5), 503-521.
Guest, D. (1999). Peering into the black hole: The downside of new employment relations in the UK. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 37(3), 367-389.
Guest, D. E., & Bos-Nehles, A. C. (2013). HRM and performance: The role of effective implementation, In: HRM and performance: achievements and challenges, ed. Jaap Paauwe, David E. Guest, and Patrick W. Wright. (Chichester: Wiley), 79-96.
Guest, D. E., and King, Z. (2004). Power, innovation and problem-solving: The personnel managers’ three steps to heaven? Journal of Management Studies, 41(3), 401-423.
Hales, C. (2005). Rooted in supervision, branching into management: continuity and change in the role of first-line manager. Journal of Management Studies, 42(3), 471-506.
Harney, B., & Jordan, C. (2008). Unlocking the black box: line managers and HRM-Performance in a call centre context. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 57(4), 275-296. DOI: 10.1108/17410400810867508
Harris, L. (2001). Rewarding employee performance: Line managers’ values, beliefs and perspectives. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(7), 1182-1192.
Harris, L., Doughty, D., & Kirk, S. (2002). The devolution of HR responsibilities—perspectives from the UK’s public sector. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26(5), 218-229.
Harrison, R. (2002). Learning and development. (2nd ed.). London: CIPD.
Hart, L. C., Smith, S. Z., Swars, S. L., & Smith, M. E. (2009). An examination of research methods in mathematics education (1995–2005). Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(1), 26-41.
Hope-Hailey, V. H., Farndale, E., & Truss, C. (2005). The HR department’s role in organizational performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 15(3), 49-66.
Husin, S., Chelladurai, P., & Musa, G. (2012). HRM practices, organizational citizenship behaviors, and perceived service quality in golf courses. Journal of Sport Management, 26(2), 143-158.
Hutchinson, S., & Purcell, J. (2003). Bringing Policies to Life: The Vital Role of Front-Line Managers. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Hutchinson, S., & Purcell, J. (2007). The role of line managers in people management. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Hutchinson, S., & Wood, S. (1995). Personnel and the line: Developing the new relationship. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Johnston, V., Way, K., Long, M. H., Wyatt, M., Gibson, L., & Shaw, W. S. (2015). Supervisor competencies for supporting return to work: a mixed-methods study. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, 25(1), 3-17.
Kareinen, M. (2020).  It is not HR tool, not at all, and there’s no way we want to call it HR tool, because we want line managers to take ownership over it”-Role theoretical approach to devolution of HR tasks in Finnish, white-collar expert work. Thesis for master degree, Aalto University School of Business.
Kiss, P. J., & Klimkó, G. (2018). Workload balancing in the hungarian public administration. In: International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (pp. 243-257). Springer, Cham.
Kristine Grace, T. (2021). Line manager involvement in HRM: Advancing theory and evidence from Philippine call centers. Thesis for PhD degree, Available at: https://www.kuleuven.be/doctoraatsverdediging/fiches/3H11/3H110498.htm
Lam, W., Chen, Z., & Takeuchi, N. (2009). Perceived human resource management practices and intention to leave of employees: The mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior in a Sino-Japanese joint venture. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(11), 250-270.
Lamertz, K. (1999). The social network structure and social exchange of inter-personal help in co-acting work groups. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Canada), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, (UMI No. NQ41202).
Lavelle, J. J., McMahan, G. C., & Harris, C. M. (2009). Fairness in human resource management, social exchange relationships, and citizenship behavior: Testing linkages of the target similarity model among nurses in the United States. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(12), 2419-2434.
Lee, A. J. (2007). Organizational justice: A mediated model from individual well-being and social exchange theory perspectives. (Doctoral dissertation, Touro University International, Cypress, CA), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database, (UMI No. 3254316).
Legge, K. (2005). Human resource management: Rhetorics and realities. (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lepak, D. P., Liao, H., Chung, Y., & Harden, E. E. (2006). A conceptual review of human resource management systems in strategic human resource management research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 25(1), 217-271.
Liden, R., Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2004). The role of leader member exchange in the dynamic relationship between employer and employee: implications for employee socialization, leaders and organizations. in: J. Coyle-Shapiro, L. Shore, S. Taylor and L. Tetrick (eds), The Employment Relationship: Examining Psychological and Contextual Perspectives, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Marchington, M. (2001). Employee involvement at work. in: J. Storey (ed.), Human resource management: A critical text. (2nd ed.). London: Thomson.
Marchington, M., & Grugulis, I. (2000). Best practice HRM: perfect opportunity or dangerous illusion? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4), 905-25.
Maxwell, G.A., & Watson, S. (2006). Perspectives on line managers in HRM: Hilton international’s UK hotels. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(6), 1152-1170.
McConville, T., & Holden, L. (1999). The filling in the sandwich: Managers in the health sector. Personnel Review, 28(5/6), 406-424.
McCracken, M., & Wallace, M. (2000). Towards a redefinition of strategic HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 24(5), 281-290.
McGovern, P., Gratton, L., Hope-Hailey, V., Stiles, P., & Truss, C. (1997). Human resource management on the line? Human Resource Management Journal, 7(4), 12-29.
Mcguire, D., Stoner, L., & Mylona, S. (2014). The role of line managers as Human Resource Agents in Fostering Organizational Change in Public Services. Journal of Change Management, 8(1), 73-84.
Moideenkutty, U. (2009). Moderating effect of supervisory role depicting employee impression of management. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 13(1),
Munoz, S. R., & Bangdiwala, S. I. (1997). Interpretation of Kappa and B Statistics Measures of Agreement. Journal of Applied Statistics, 24(1), 105-112.
Nickaus, A. L. (2007). The complex relationship between role ambiguity, role conflict, work engagement of HR mangers and the implementation of SHRM. Master’s Thesis. Universities Maastricht, Netherlands.
Nik Mat, N. H., & Zabidi, Z.N. (2017). The devolution of HRM to line managers in Malaysia: Role expectations vs. role taking. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 12(6), 1419-1426.
Paauwe, J. (2004). HRM–performance. Achieving Long Term Viability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pindek, S., Lucianetti, L., Kessler, S. R., & Spector, P. E. (2020). Employee to leader crossover of workload and physical strain. International Journal of Stress Management, 27(4), 326-334.
Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007a). Front-line managers as agents in the HRM–performance causal chain: theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), 3-20.
Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007b). Rewarding work: The vital role of line managers. London: CIPD.
Purcell, J., Kinnie, N., Swart, J., Rayton, B., & Hutchinson, S. (2008). People management and performance. Routledge.
Renwick, D. (2003). Line managers’ involvement in HRM: An inside view. Employee Relations, 25(3), 262-80.
Sandelowski, M., Voils, C. I., & Barroso, J. (2006). Defining and designing mixed research synthesis studies. Research in the Schools, 13, 29-40.
Sandelowski, M., Voils, C.I., Leeman, J., Crandell, J.L. (2012). Mapping the mixed methods–mixed research synthesis terrain, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6(4), 317-331.
Sheehan, C. (2005). A model for HRM strategic integration. Personnel Review, 34(2), 192-209.
Sikora, D. M., & Ferris, G. R. (2014). Strategic human resource practice implementation: The critical role of line management. Human Resource Management Review, 24(3), 271-281.
Stajkovic, A. D., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 240-261.
Su, Z. X., Wang, Z., & Chen, S. (2020). The impact of CEO transformational leadership on organizational voluntary turnover and employee innovative behavior: The mediating role of collaborative HRM. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 58(2), 197-219.
Tang, Y. T., & Chang, C. H. (2010). Impact of role ambiguity and role conflict on employee creativity. African Journal of Business Management, 4(6), 869-881.
Tekleab, A., & Taylor, M. (2003). Aren’t there two parties in the employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization–employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 585-608.
Townsend, K., Wilkinson, A., Allan, C., & Bamber, G. (2012). Mixed signals in HRM: The HRM role of hospital line managers. Human Resource Management Journal, 22(3), 267-282.
Trullen, J., Stirpe, L., Bonache, J., & Valverde, M. (2016). The HR department's contribution to line managers' effective implementation of HR practices. Human Resource Management Journal, 26(4), 449-470.
Truss, K. (2001). Complexities and controversies in linking HRM with organizational outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, 38(8), 1121-1149.
Tyskbo, D. (2020). Line management involvement in performance appraisal work: Toward a practice-based understanding. Employee Relations, 42(3), 818-844.
Ulrich, D. (1997). Human resource champions: The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Üngüren, E., & Arslan, S. (2021). The effect of role ambiguity and role conflict on job performance in the hotel industry: The mediating effect of job satisfaction. Tourism & Management Studies, 17(1), 45-58.
Watson, S., Maxwell, G. A., & Farquharson, L. (2007). Line managers’ views on adopting human resource roles: The case of Hilton (UK) hotels. Employee Relations, 29(1), 30-49.
Whittaker, S., & Marchington, M. (2003). Devolving HR responsibility to the line: threat, opportunity or partnership? Employee Relations, 36(3), 245-261.
Williams, P. (2019). Support for supervisors: HR enabling flexible work. Employee Relations, 41(5), 914-930.
Woodrow, C., & Guest, D. E. (2014). When good HR gets bad results: Exploring the challenge of HR implementation in the case of workplace bullying. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(1), 38-56.
Wright, C. (2008). Reinventing human resource management: Business partners, internal consultants and the limits to professionalization. Human Relations, 61(8), 1063-1086.
Young, M., & Post, J. E. (1993). Managing to communicate, communicating to manage: How leading companies communicate with employees. Organizational Dynamics, 22(1), 31-43